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24 marzo 2009 - 19:59

Disegnare velocemente Primer con CLC…

Differentiating Between Natural and Synthetic Nootropics

In the world of nootropics, there are two main categories: natural compounds derived from plants and synthetic drugs created in laboratories. Understanding the differences between these options can help individuals make informed choices here

Natural Nootropics: Traditional Use without Extensive Research

Natural nootropics are often derived from herbs or other plant-based sources. These ingredients have a long history of traditional use in various cultures for their cognitive-enhancing properties. However, it’s important to note that while they may have been used for centuries, extensive scientific research on their effectiveness is often lacking.


Long history of traditional use

Generally considered safe with minimal side effects

Availability as dietary supplements without prescription


Limited scientific evidence supporting their efficacy

Varying potency and quality among different brands or sources

Lack of standardized dosages and formulations

Examples of herbal nootropics include ginkgo biloba, bacopa monnieri, and rhodiola rosea. These natural compounds are believed to improve memory, concentration, and overall brain function. While anecdotal evidence suggests positive effects, more research is needed to validate these claims.

Synthetic Nootropics: Designed for Cognitive Enhancement

On the other hand, synthetic nootropics are specifically designed in laboratories with the goal of enhancing cognitive function. These compounds undergo rigorous testing to ensure safety and efficacy. They are typically created to target specific areas of cognition such as memory retention or mental focus.


Extensive scientific research supporting their effectiveness

Precise control over dosage and formulation

Potential for targeted cognitive enhancement


Increased risk of side effects compared to natural options

May require a prescription or medical supervision

Limited availability due to regulatory restrictions

Synthetic nootropics include compounds like modafinil, piracetam, and aniracetam. These drugs have been studied extensively and are known to enhance cognitive abilities in specific ways. For example, modafinil is often prescribed to treat sleep disorders and has gained popularity as a cognitive enhancer due to its ability to promote wakefulness and increase focus.

It’s important to note that while synthetic nootropics may offer more targeted effects and scientific evidence, they also come with a higher risk of side effects compared to natural options. Therefore, it’s crucial for individuals considering synthetic compounds to consult with a healthcare professional before use.

Understanding the Mechanism of Weight Loss Drugs

Weight loss drugs can be a helpful tool for individuals looking to shed those extra pounds. But have you ever wondered how these medications actually work in your body? Let’s dive into the mechanisms behind different types of weight loss drugs and how they contribute to overall weight management more information

Different Types of Weight Loss Drugs

There are various types of weight loss drugs available on the market, each with its own unique mechanism of action. Some common categories include appetite suppressants, fat absorption inhibitors, and metabolism enhancers.

Appetite Suppressants

One popular mechanism used by weight loss drugs is appetite suppression. These medications work by targeting specific receptors in the brain that regulate hunger and satiety. By activating these receptors, appetite suppressants help reduce feelings of hunger and increase feelings of fullness, leading to decreased food intake.


Can help individuals control their portion sizes and reduce calorie intake.

May lead to more sustainable weight loss when combined with a healthy diet and exercise.


Potential side effects such as dry mouth, insomnia, or increased heart rate.

Not suitable for everyone, especially those with certain medical conditions or taking specific medications.

Fat Absorption Inhibitors

Another type of weight loss drug inhibits the absorption of dietary fats in the intestines. These medications work by blocking enzymes responsible for breaking down fats during digestion. As a result, less fat is absorbed into the bloodstream, reducing overall calorie intake.


Can be effective in reducing body weight when combined with a low-fat diet.

May also improve cholesterol levels.


Can cause gastrointestinal side effects like oily stools or diarrhea.

Not recommended for individuals with certain digestive disorders or vitamin deficiencies.

Metabolism Enhancers

Metabolism-enhancing weight loss drugs aim to increase the body’s energy expenditure by boosting metabolism. These medications work by targeting specific receptors or enzymes involved in metabolic processes, such as the activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) or the inhibition of monoamine oxidase.

A seconda del tipo di PCR che si deve fare (Real Time Pcr o no, da genomico o da plasmide) si devono costruire primer più o meno “accurati”. Se si deve fare una Pcr da genomico ad esempio bisogna stare attenti che i primer non vadano anche ad annilare in altri punti del genoma, oltre a quello di interesse…

Nel mio caso faccio molte PCR da plasmidi. In questo caso le coppie di basi non sono molte, quindi è altamente improbabile che primer lunghi 15-20 nucleotidi vadano ad annilare in più punti.

In questo caso disegnare dei primer è molto semplice…Ma troppe volte vedo persone che disegnano su carta i primer, sia forward che reverse (perdendo tempo e rischiando di fare errori).

La cosa è molto più semplice con CLC Sequence Viewer:

  • (Ovviamente) Importare la sequenza del gene su cui fare la PCR in CLC Sequence Viewer
  • Selezionare lo spaziamento ogni 3 nucleotidi scegliendo il frame appropiato (Potete anche salvare questa opzione in modo da non selezionarla ogni volta).


  • Selezionare i 15-20 nucleotidi che formeranno il primer FW (tenendo conto del frame e che devono terminare con una C o G), poi tasto dx -> Open Selection in new view
  • Tasto dx sul primer appena creato -> Select Sequence, di nuovo tasto dx -> Edit. In questo modo potete modificare la sequenza, aggiungere codoni di start, enzimi di restrizione.
  • Tornando sulla sequenza del gene selezionate il segmento che andrà a formare il primer Reverse. In questo caso non c’è bisogno di tenere conto del frame. Fate in modo che cominci con una G o una C (l’inizio che selezionate diventerà il 3?, quindi rappresenta la fine del primer). Al solito, fate tasto dx -> Open Selection in new view. Poi modificate il primer a vostro piacere aggiungendo codone di STOP o siti di restrizione.
  • A questo punto nella toolbox “Reverse Complemente Sequence” e avrete il vostro primer Reverse pronto.


I primer possono essere copiati-incollati sul sito dove ordinate i primer (evitate errori di battitura), possono essere stampati o salvati in una cartella. Vi ricordo che se si deve fare una Pcr da genomico bisogna stare attenti che i primer non vadano anche ad annilare in altri punti del genoma, quindi questo metodo non va bene (in questo caso c’è il sistema descritto da Nico).

Spero però sia utile a qualcuno!!

Alla prossima…

Link: MyBioinformatica

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